New Perspectives in the Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction

DOI: 10.2478/jce-2021-0017

Acute and chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a major public health problem, studies showing a 25% survival rate at 5 years after hospitalization. If left untreated, it is a common and potentially fatal disease. In recent years, the medical and device therapies of patients with HFrEF have significantly improved. The aim of our review is to provide an evidence-based update on new therapeutic strategies in acute and chronic settings, to prevent hospitalization and death in patients with HFrEF. We performed a systematic literature search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and we included a number of 23 randomized controlled trials published in the last 30 years. The benefit of betablockers and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in patients with HFrEF is well known. Recent developments, such as sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, vericiguat, transcatheter mitral valve repair, wireless pulmonary artery pressure monitor and cardiac contractility modulation, have also proven effective in improving prognosis. In addition, other new therapeutic agents showed encouraging results, but they are currently being studied. The implementation of personalized disease management programs that directly target the cause of HFrEF is crucial in order to improve prognosis and quality of life for these patients.