Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the factors associated with increased mortality in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia, emphasizing the importance of an early diagnosis and a prompt surgical intervention in order to avoid lesion progression. Materials and method: A retrospective analytical study was conducted on a study population of 50 male and female patients with acute ischemia of the mesenteric arteries, aged between 36–92 years. Demographic and pathological history characteristics were assessed, together with presented symptoms, laboratory and CT findings, as well as surgical outcome and time-related aspects between presentation in the emergency department and time of surgery, as well as the hospitalization period until discharge or death. Results: Muscular defense (OR = 23.05) and shock (OR = 13.24) as symptoms were strongly associated with a poor prognosis, while elevated values of lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.0440) and creatine kinase (p = 0.0025) were associated with higher death rates. The time elapsed during investigations in the emergency room was significantly higher in patients who deceased (p = 0.0023), similarly to the total time from the onset of symptoms to the beginning of surgery (p = 0.0032). Surgical outcomes showed that patients with segmental ischemia of the small bowel had significantly higher chances of survival (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Increased mortality rates in patients presenting in the emergency department for acute mesenteric ischemia were observed in patients with occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, with higher levels of CK and LDH, as well as with longer periods of stay in the emergency department for diagnostic procedures until the commencement of the surgical intervention. Therefore, proper investigations in a timely manner followed by a specific and prompt surgical intervention may avoid unfavorable evolution of patients towards death.